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In general, surgical referral for all types of dystonia can be considered in patients who have failed trials with anticholinergic drugs, benzodiazepines, and levodopa in generalized/segmental dystonia, or had no benefit or failure with botulinum toxin injections in cranial and cervical...

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Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a bacterial toxin that could be used as a medicine. Clinical applications of BTX have been expanding over the last 30 years and novel applications reported. Its mechanism of inhibiting acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions following local injection is unique for the treatment of facial...

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Alternative Therapies include herbal and nutritional supplements, exercise and massage techniques. A strong evidence for their benefit is lacking in general. Patients with Parkinson Disease (PD) routinely come across them and as many as 40% end up trying one of them. Here we will very briefly summarize the available scientific support for them, if...

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