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Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a bacterial toxin that could be used as a medicine. Clinical applications of BTX have been expanding over the last 30 years and novel applications reported. Its mechanism of inhibiting acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions following local injection is unique for the treatment of facial wrinkles. Other dose-dependent anti-neuroinflammatory effects and vascular modulating properties have extended its spectrum of applications. Conditions such as temporomandibular joint disorders, sialorrhea, headache and neuropathic facial pain, muscle movement disorders, and facial nerve palsy could also be treated with this drug. Further applications of BTX are likely to be developed.

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